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General requirements for modern computers

Price / performance ratio

Reliability and Resiliency


Compatible software and mobility

Classification of computers by application

Personal computers and workstations




Cluster Architecture

Performance Evaluation of Computer Systems

General remarks



SPECint92, SPECfp92

SPECrate_int92, SPECrate_fp92



The main architectural concepts

The definition of "architecture"

The system architecture teams. Classification processors (CISC and RISC)

Methods of addressing and data types

Addressing method

The types of commands

Teams flow control commands

The types and sizes of operands

Conveyor Organization

What is pipelining

Simple organization of the conveyor and the assessment of its performance

Structural conflicts and ways to minimize them

Conflicts of data, stop the conveyor and implementation mechanism rounds

Reduction of losses in the implementation of the transition teams and minimize conflict management

Problems of realization of precise interrupts in the pipeline

Processing Multicycle operations and mechanisms detours in long conveyors

Pipelining and superscalar processing

Parallelism at instruction execution pipeline capacity planning and deployment cycles technique

Eliminating data dependencies and mechanisms of dynamic scheduling

Hardware forecasting the direction of transitions and reducing losses on the organization of transitions

Simultaneous delivery of multiple commands to execute and dynamic scheduling

Architecture machines with a long instruction word

Troubleshooting and dependencies compiler and deployment cycles

Hardware support largely paralleling

Memory Hierarchy


Organization cache

Principles of organization of the main memory in modern computers

General provisions

Increased bit main memory

Memory with bundle

Using specific properties of dynamic RAM

The virtual memory and memory protection organization

The concept of virtual memory

Memory paging

Segmentation Memory

Modern microprocessors

Processors 80x86 and Pentium architecture

Features SPARC processor architecture of Sun Microsystems

PA-RISC processors Hewlett-Packard Company

Motorola's MC88110 processor

Features of the architecture of MIPS MIPS Technology

Features of DEC Alpha architecture

Features of the architecture of IBM POWER and PowerPC companies Motorola, Apple and IBM

POWER Architecture

Evolution of the POWER architecture in the direction of the PowerPC architecture

Organization of I / O


Systemic and local bus

I / O devices

The main types of I / O devices

Magnetic and magneto-optical disks

Disk Arrays and RAID levels

Devices archiving

Multiprocessing Systems

Classification systems of parallel processing

Multi-processor systems with shared memory

Multiprocessor systems with local memory and multicomputer system

Systems high availability and fault-tolerant systems

Basic definitions

Subsystems external memory high availability

The requirements for high-availability systems

Configurations high-availability systems

Requirements initial installation

Requirements for the system software

High Availability Requirements for Application Software

Requirements for network organization and Communications

"Clustering" as a way to ensure high system availability

The base model VAX / VMS cluster

Criteria for evaluation of clusters Gartner Group

Clusters Alpha / OSF company DEC

UNIX-clusters of IBM

Clusters of AT & T GIS

Clusters of Sequent Computer Systems

System High Availability Hewlett-Packard

Cluster solutions Sun Microsystems

Fault-tolerant solutions


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